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Pain following orthopedic surgery is common and can be debilitating. In this blog post, we will review the different interventions that can help relieve pain and discuss how to choose one for your client. There are two types of intervention: non-surgical interventions and surgical interventions. Non-surgical interventions include medications (e.g., opioids, anti-inflammatory drugs), topical treatments (e.g., ice pack), physical therapy, massage, electrical stimulation or acupuncture). Surgical interventions include joint replacement with prosthesis or arthroplasty without a prosthesis) and intra-articular injections (e.g., corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid). Medications are used to manage pain and inflammation caused by various types of orthopedic conditions such as arthritis or a fracture. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be taken with acetaminophen for more relief on an ongoing basis when over the counter medications do not provide enough relief from their symptoms. They work by blocking prostaglandins which cause inflammation and swelling in joints that leads to pain. NSAID use is contraindicated if there is any history of gastrointestinal ulcers, asthma, hypertension, heart failure or stroke since it may increase risk for these conditions. It should also be avoided during pregnancy

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